Cybersecurity Policymaking in the BRICS Countries: From Addressing National Priorities to Seeking International Cooperation
Keywords:Cybersecurity, Data protection, Personal information, Content moderation, Cybercrime, Policy, Policymaking, BRICS, Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa
In the concluding statement of the 2021 BRICS Summit, the bloc’s five members—Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa—pledged to pursue enhanced cooperation on cybersecurity issues, including by “establishing legal frameworks of cooperation among BRICS” and a BRICS intergovernmental agreement on cybersecurity. This piece briefly outlines the mounting relevance of cybersecurity for the BRICS countries, recent national policymaking in this area in the bloc, and the dynamics at play as the BRICS countries seek to further intensify and structure their cooperation on cybersecurity matters.
Ballard, M. (2010, April 20). UN rejects international cybercrime treaty. Computer Weekly. https://www.computerweekly.com/news/1280092617/UN-rejects-international-cybercrime-treaty
Belli, L. (2019, November 13). From BRICS to CyberBRICS: New cybersecurity cooperation. China Today. http://www.chinatoday.com.cn/ctenglish/2018/tpxw/201911/t20191113_800184922.html
Belli, L. (2020a, February 3). The largest personal data leakage in Brazilian history. Open Democracy. https://www.opendemocracy.net/en/largest-personal-data-leakage-brazilian-history/
Belli, L. (2020b). Data protection in the BRICS countries: Enhanced cooperation and convergence towards legal interoperability. CyberBRICS. https://cyberbrics.info/data-protection-in-the-brics-countries-enhanced-cooperation-and-convergence-towards-legal-interoperability/
Belli, L. (Ed.) (2021a). CyberBRICS: Cybersecurity regulations in the BRICS countries. Springer.
Belli, L. (2021b). CyberBRICS: A multidimensional approach to cybersecurity for the BRICS. In L. Belli (Ed.), CyberBRICS: Cybersecurity regulations in the BRICS countries. Springer.
Belli, L. (2021c, September 17). Cybersecurity convergence in the BRICS countries. [Blog post.] Directions. European Union. https://directionsblog.eu/cybersecurity-convergence-in-the-brics-countries/
Belli, L., & Doneda, D. (2021, September 2). O que falta ao Brasil e à América Latina para uma proteção de dados efetiva? JOTA. https://www.jota.info/opiniao-e-analise/artigos/o-que-falta-ao-brasil-e-a-america-latina-para-uma-protecao-de-dados-efetiva-02092021
BRICS. (2013). eThekwini Declaration and Action Plan. http://mea.gov.in/bilateral-documents.htm?dtl/21482
BRICS. (2015). VII BRICS Summit - Ufa Declaration. https://www.brics2021.gov.in/BRICSDocuments/2015/Ufa-Declaration-2015.pdf
BRICS. (2021). BRICS India 2021 - XIII BRICS Summit - New Delhi Declaration. https://brics2021.gov.in/brics/public/uploads/docpdf/getdocu-51.pdf
Centre for Internet and Society (CIS). (2020). The Centre for Internet and Society’s comments and recommendations to the: The Personal Data Protection Bill 2019. https://cis-india.org/accessibility/blog/cis-comments-pdp-bill-2019
Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil (CGI.br). (2014, April 20). Um pouco sobre o Marco Civil da Internet. https://www.cgi.br/noticia/notas/um-pouco-sobre-o-marco-civil-da-internet
Daucé, F., & Musiani, F. (2021). Infrastructure-embedded control, circumvention and sovereignty in the Russian Internet: An introduction. First Monday, 26(5). https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v26i5.11685
Grover, G., & Thomas, A. (2021, February 22). Notes from a foreign field: The European Court of Human Rights on Russia’s website blocking. CyberBRICS. https://cyberbrics.info/notes-from-a-foreign-field-the-european-court-of-human-rightson-russias-website-blocking/
Iunes, J., & Macedo, N. (2021, June 1). Por onde anda o PL das Fake News? É necessário focar no aprimoramento dos deveres procedimentais, respeitando o regime de responsabilização adotado pelo Marco Civil da Internet. Portal FGV. https://portal.fgv.br/artigos/onde-anda-pl-fake-news-e-necessario-focar-aprimoramento-deveres-procedimentais-respeitando
Mabunda, S. (2021). Cybersecurity in South Africa: Towards best practices. In L. Belli (Ed.), CyberBRICS: Cybersecurity regulations in the BRICS countries. Springer.
MacAskill, E., & Dance, G. (2013, November 1). NSA files: Decoded. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/interactive/2013/nov/01/snowden-nsa-files-surveillance-revelations-decoded#section/1
Musiani, F., Loveluck, B., Daucé, F., & Ermoshina, K. (2019, October 28). “Digital sovereignty”: Can Russia cut off its internet from the rest of the world? The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/digital-sovereignty-can-russia-cut-off-its-internetfrom-the-rest-of-the-world-125952
O’Neill, J. (2001). Building better global economic BRICs. Global Economics Paper No. 66. Goldman Sachs. https://www.goldmansachs.com/insights/archive/archive-pdfs/build-better-brics.pdf
Shcherbovich, A. (2021). Data protection and cybersecurity legislation of the Russian Federation in the context of the “sovereignization” of the internet in Russia. In L. Belli (Ed.), CyberBRICS: Cybersecurity regulations in the BRICS countries. Springer.
Shcherbovitch, S., Granberg, S., & Carvalho, A. (2019, May 8). Sovereign internet law signed by the President of Russia. CyberBRICS. https://cyberbrics.info/sovereign-internet-law-signed-by-the-president-of-russia/
Sircar, S. (2020, March 3). A blank cheque to Govt: Justice Srikrishna on Data Protection Bill. The Quint. https://www.thequint.com/news/india/personal-data-protectionbill-a-blank-signed-cheque-to-government-justice-srikrishna
Snail, S. (2021, June 15). Legal intersections between the Protection of Personal Information Act 4 of 2013 (POPIA) and the Cyber Crimes Act 19 of 2020. CyberBRICS. https://cyberbrics.info/legal-intersections-between-the-protection-of-personal-information-act-4-of-2013-popia-and-the-cyber-crimes-act-19-of-2020-2/
Software Freedom Law Center, India (SFLC.IN). (2021, May 28). Legal challenges to the traceability provision: What is happening in India? https://sflc.in/legal-challenges-traceability-provision-what-happening-india
Stuenkel, O. (2016). Post-Western world: How emerging powers are remaking global order. Polity Press.
Stuenkel, O. (2020). The BRICS and the future of global order (2nd ed.). Lexington Books. The Economist. (2021, September 11). China has become a laboratory for the regulation of digital technology. https://www.economist.com/china/2021/09/11/china-has-become-a-laboratory-for-the-regulation-of-digital-technology
Zanfir-Fortuna, G., & Iminova, R. (2021, March 2). Russia: New law requires express consent for making personal data available to the public and for any subsequent dissemination. CyberBRICS. https://cyberbrics.info/russia-new-law-requires-express-consent-for-making-personal-data-available-to-the-public-and-for-anysubsequent-dissemination
Zhao, X., Li, M., Huang, M., & Sokolov, A. (Eds.). (2018). BRICS innovative competitiveness report 2017. https://publications.hse.ru/mirror/pubs/share/direct/252594344
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Luca Belli
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.